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One of the wind instruments widely used in the orchestra and ensembles, in minstrel music, folklore groups is balaban. Sometimes it is called "balaman" has the the meaning of "small” and "ban" (resembling of sound timbre to cockcrow) and means “small (early) cockcrow”.
With a soft and plaintive sound balaban is used to accompany the ensemble, orchestra and as well as solo instrument among wind instruments, to accompany minstrel group.
Balaban is made of apricot, walnut, mulberry, and pear trees by carving its inside on special machine tools, oiled with certain vegetable oils and ried at a certain temperature for a long time. There are eight hollows on upper part of the body, and one in the lower part. During performance using the fingers of both hands the hollows are opened and closed.
One part of balaban is placed with flatten mouthpiece of certain size made of reed by pressing it. Therefore, in some cases, this tool is called "flat balaban". By means of clamp fixed on mouthpiece the sound volume and tone of instrument is adjusted accordingly.
Player taking deep breath of air to play an instrument and gathers air in the oral cavity and skillfully blows it between his lips into mouthpiece and by moving fingers on hollows gets desired sound volume.
Its length is 280-300 mm, diameter is 20-22 mm.
The main diapason of balaban is from small octave’s "sol" to the second octave’s "do" sound. Depending of skill of player a few sounds can be added as well.