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Religious trends and enlightenment in Azerbaijan

  


A number of teachings created and wide spread with the existence of different ideological currents at the beginning of the XIX century in the East, including in Azerbaijan. One of them is Sheikhism belonging to Sheikh Ahmed ibn Zeynaddin Bahraynie (1753-1827). This religio-philosophical doctrine formed by combining the ishrakizm ideas of Sadraddin Shirazi. A prominent Azerbaijani educator of the XIX century Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh in 1863, in Tabriz, analyzed and criticized the ideas of Sheikh Ahmed Bahraynie, linking them with the ideas of Mullah Rahim. Gasim bey Zakir (1784-1857) argued against a rough identification of the mullahs sect sheyhitov with Khalig.
In the XIX century, on the ideological basis of religious doctrine has arisen sheyhitov Babism, whose founder was Mohammed Seid Ali Bab (1819-1850), who assumed the title of the Bab (Gate), implying that the fact that he is the Gate (mediator), through which the Imam Mehdi will be for people. In 1847, the Bab declared himself a prophet, for which he was arrested and shot.
Known as a founder of Russian Oriental Studies, Mirze Kazim Bey’s “Bab babidy” book, published in 1865 in St. Petersburg in Russian, is a valuable resource that describes the history of origin and the main directions of the religious currents babidov.
Baha\'i religion, founded in the period a follower of the Bab, Mirza Hussein Ali Baha\'u\'llah (1817-1892), inherited the basic ideas Babism, but differed from Babism rejection of the revolutionary-democratic elements.
In the XIX century, enjoyed great fame as Fazil Derbendi Shirvani (...- 1868) - follower of the sect of Shiism imams. Known for his writings on the law imamism - two-volume work Treasury of greatness, Infusions of art about astrology, etc.
The period under consideration is characterized by the spread of Sufism in North Azerbaijan Naqshbandi Tariqa, which originated in Turkey and advocated a form of poetry in the border with Dagestan areas of Gazakh and Karabakh counties. Mohammed Asger and Gutkashynly Abdullah was known representatives of this doctrine. The religious-mystical ideas Seid Nigarani (1815-1885) also lived on the precepts of doctrine Nahshbandiya.
One who made the religious rather banal and unrecognizable form, dynasty of Qacar, Karim khan. Thus, the views of the person referred to as a fourth column (Rukn-servant), have been sharply criticized Mirze Feteli Akhundzadeh that connected all of these prejudices are mostly from ignorance.
Sheyhitov teachings and other teachings, originates in some form, because of the excess and banality comply neither with the principles of orthodox religion, nor sound logic thinking, although in general have to some extent, religious and philosophical grounds. In this regard, the teachings and beliefs of the masses did not enjoy popularity.
Under the rule of religious in Azerbaijan is gradually spreading the ideas of the Enlightenment. Enlightenment first emerged in Western Europe, then in Russia, and finally, in Eastern countries as a sign of the struggle against feudalism, the church and the scholastic modes of thought. In the East, enlightenment was formed under the influence of Western ideas of the Enlightenment, and became a worldwide event. Enlightenment ideas quickly penetrated the Eastern Province, in close connection with the West, or rather a colony or semi-colony of Western countries.
Implementing the ideas of enlightenment in Azerbaijan, where a host of brilliant pages of history of human culture, it was expected and natural phenomenon, taking into account the rule here for many years of religious obscurantism. The extensive promotion of ideas of the Enlightenment in the ideological struggle before the collapse of the feudal way of life must be seen as a result of Western influence, which is clearly seen in the views Mirze Fatali Akhundzadeh. Promoting the ideas of the Enlightenment has always relied on French, Russian and other European authors.
Thus, at the beginning of the XIX century Azerbaijan suffered from a variety of contradictory tendencies of socio-historical development. All these processes influence the development of scientific and philosophical thought of Azerbaijan. During this period, in Azerbaijan, although late, but having socio-political doctrine educational direction in which their educational ideas, philosophical, ethical and materialistic views disseminated by such prominent educators, like M.Navvab, Ismail bey Gutkashynly, Abbasgulu Aga Bakikhanov, Mirze Fatali Akhundov and others.
In the works of Abbasgulu Aga Bakihanov Improvement of manners, Gulistan Irem covers the issues of logic, morality, and philosophy. Bakikhanov’s views were based on classical philosophy in combination with Islamic values. The aim of wisdom (philosophy), he saw in the education and enlightenment. According to him, being initially created by God - it\'s mind in terms of coverage of all things in the world over - with Tochi regulatory perspective of things, light and reflection - with start and end positions. Bakikhanov, expressing his attitude to the two theories of astronomy, he defended his views on Copernicus heliocentric system of the world, according to which there are no stars in the Galaxy than the Sun. According to him, indicators benevolence, kindness, positive moral qualities are the justice and conscience.
Ideological basis of philosophical creativity of Mirze Feteli Akhundov was progressive Russian, East European, and philosophy and culture. Mirze Feteli Akhundov was well acquainted with Greek philosophy and culture. In his view, the purpose of philosophy is to enhance the role of the human mind with the uptake in the universe of real events. According to the Akhundov’s teachings the world is material, and various objects and processes in nature, composed of many elements of a single material substance that covers the totality of things in nature.
Akhundov, speaking against the idea of the immortality of the soul, says that consciousness, the soul depends on the matter, and it is its product. He understands the world in a specific role for direct sense-certainty, and did not represent the mind without the senses, the senses. In his opinion, there is nothing visible, not feels, not observed. Philosophical heritage Mirze Fatali Akhundov contains a critical critique of religion. He pointed out the incompatibility of religion and science, the reliability of one and the other false, identifying with the essence of religion through an analysis of its structural units. Akhundov, explaining the essence of religion from the standpoint of the Enlightenment, pointed out that religion has arisen due to the presence of supernatural forces and seeks to lead people astray.



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