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» Norm and styles of Azerbaijani literary language
Norm and styles of Azerbaijani literary language
The first quality of the literary language is its possession of some norms. Modern Azerbaijani literary language as one of the developed world languages of the worlds has perfect, stable norms. The same norms are the product of the certain historical evolution.
Sound composition (phonetics), (vocabulary) and grammar comprise inner system of the language. Norms of the literary language are suitable for these, too:
1. Phonetic norm;
2. Lexical norm;
3. Grammatical norm.
Phonetic norm self is divided into to two:
a) Orthoepic norm
b) Orthographical norm
Orthographical and orthoepic norms arise on the basis of phonetic and grammatical (morphological) norms of the language. Concerning to the agglutinative type of the Azerbaijani language defines character, typology of its literary norms.
Variant of pronunciation of the word in literary language is called orthoepic norm. These norms are reflected in the orthoepy dictionary.
Variant of method of writing of the word in the literary language is called orthographical norm. These norms are defined by the state and by the orthographical dictionaries.
Vocabulary composition of the Azerbaijani language is very rich. As another developed literary languages of the world, national words define the quality of the lexical norms in Azerbaijani literary language, too.
Lexical norm demands better acquaintance of everybody with the meaning or meanings of the word, to use it accordingly and correctly. So, words in the language have the definite meaning thanks to historical development. Using of the word in a meaning not belonging to it, in the outdated tradition, including in the text unnecessarily is deemed as speech fault. If word is not used in the meaning being characteristic to it, it means the thought will not be become correctly clear, so, the requirement of speech culture – lexical norm will be breached.
Vulgar, harsh word and expressions must not be used in the literary language.
Lexical norm demands being very careful in the dialect words, barbarism and vulgar words. If these words do not mean art purpose, using them of is prohibited by norms of literary language.
Besides correct usage of word, its usage correctly, expressive and emotional are also form demands of the lexical norms
Grammatical norm of the modern Azerbaijani literary language reflects grammatical system being based on the agglutination principle of the national language.
Grammatical norm demands correctly building of relations in the speech among words and sentences, and brings it in norm.
Grammatical norms of our modern literary language can be grouped as following:
1. Plural suffixes and then belonging, case suffixes are added to nouns: kənd-lər-imiz-in
2. Noun having cardinal numeral as attribute must be used as singular: on uşaq, üç dəftər
3. Firstly accusative case, then type, suffix and then pronoun suffixes are added to verb’s root; qal-dı-ril-ma-lı-dır; döy-üş-çü-lər-imiz-in-dir
4. There is partly conformity on noun between subject and predicate: Sən azərbaycanlısan. Onlar türkdürlər.
Azerbaijani literary language has the system of functional styles. The same styles are the following:
1. Art style:
Language of the art works (poetry, prose, dramatic composition). Figurativeness and emotionalism are basic signs. Azerbaijani language had been developed for centuries as poetry language. It turns out that art style of literary language is distinguished with antiquity, completeness and being leading at all historical periods.
2. Publicistic style:
Language of newspaper, journal, radio, television, meeting, language used in the different meetings. Basic sign is popular clearness, pure language. Formation of the publicistic style started with Ekinchi (by founding of base of national press) and developed
3. Scientific style:
Language of the scientific works, textbooks, monographs. Logicality, succession, presence of terms is the basic signs. As Azerbaijani scientists had written their works either in the Middle Ages, or later in international languages, so it did not get wide opportunities as scientific and publicistic styles.
4. Official –business style:
Language of the official and business documents. Basic sign is usage at standard forms. Development of the Official –business style had fallen behind from other functional styles. This is connected with dependence of that style with statehood traditions, too. For instance, with appearance of Azerbaijani statehood examples of some perfect document had been created in XVI century and Khatai period. But during the Soviet period as documentation was carried out mainly in Russian the official–business style had remained out of development. Creation of independent Azerbaijani state had given an impetus to rapid development and strengthening.
5. Style of everyday life:
Language of everyday intercourse. Freedom of the speech and naturalness is basic sign. There is style of every day language of life, spoken language in the literary language. The speech that we perceive as language of everyday life was the language that people once used to intercourse