Home page    » FOLKLORE    » Folklore samples    » Ashiq poems- Proverbs and sayings   

Ashiq poems- Proverbs and sayings

  


Forms of ashug poems 
Though kinds of ashug pomes are many but most spread among them are gerayly, goshma and tajnis.

Müsabirdən güzar etdim,
Əcayib mərdüman gördüm.
Qaranlıq torpaq altında
Yatır cismlə, can gördüm...

Gerayly
Gerayly is eight syllabled form of poems sometimes consisted of three, five, seven, more couplet based on ordinary of or transversal rhymes. Rhyme system is such: abcb in the I couplet and çççb, dddb  etc in next couplets. Gerayly reflects the beauties, joy, pang of the world. The first example of the gerayly is found in creative works of Molla Qaasim lived in XIII-XIV centuries:

Müsabirdən güzar etdim,
Əcayib mərdüman gördüm.
Qaranlıq torpaq altında
Yatır cismlə, can gördüm...

Goshma 
Goshma is eleven syllabled poem with five, seven, eleven and sometimes more couplets. Rhyme system is like abcb, çççb, dddb... Name of the author is given at last couplet  (it is same on other ashuq poems), it is called  mohurband. According to M.Kashgari goshma (qusqu, qosqu) had spread widely in X-XI century among people. Sense and feelings of man, nature beauties had been reflected in qoshma.
A few kinds of goshma are known:

1. Ustadname
Ustadnamə ağsaqqal, böyük sözü, böyüyün nəsihəti mənasında başa düşülməlidir və ictimai-fəlsəfi və didaktik fikirlər əsasında formalaşır:
Ustadname must be understood in the meaning of elder, word of elder admonition of elder and it is formed on the basis of socio-philosophical and didactic thoughts:

...Adam var, çox işlər eylər irada,
Adam var yetə bilməz murada,
Adam var ki, çörək tapmaz dünyada,
Adam var, yağ yeyər, balı bəyənməz...(Molla Qasım)

2. Vucadname 
Basic signs of life are reflected from birth till death of man in vucudname:

...Bir yaşımda məni hamı eşitdi,
İki yaşda cismim, özüm bərkidim,
Üç yaşında ətim, sümüyüm bitdi,
Dörd yaşımda qalxıb ayağa gəldim...(Khaltanlı Taghı)

3. Gozelleme 
Gozelleme is called qoshma with lovely content dedicated to appraisal of beauties:

...Qabaq ayna-çəkilibdi varağa, 
Dodaq qaymaq, gül yapışıb yanağa.
Dolanır gözləri canlar almağa,
Şölə salır xanlıq fanarı kimi... (Ashıq Alesger)

 4.Qıfılband
Qıfılband is called to said qoshmas with content of question and answers or riddles. They are called sometimes as baghlama and usually used by ashugs as qıfılbands during quarrelling, too:

Molla Qasım:
Ləzgi Əhməd, heç vəsfindən doymazlar,
O nədir ki, götürərlər, qoymazlar.
Kimlərdir ki, məzarı yox, yumazlar,
Bu nə qonhaqondur, bu nə köçhaköç?

Lezghin Ahmed:
Molla Qasım, heç vəsfindən doymazlar,
O, ölüdür, götürərlər, qoymazlar.
Zərdüştlərdir, ölülərin yumazlar,
Dünya qonhaqondur, ölüm köçhaköç.

Tajnis
Tajnis shows it self since XIII-XIV centuries among ashug poems. In works of Molla  Qasım, Yunis Imra it shows self in the independent and completed form. Tajnis makes identity with goshma and compared to goshma, and based on rhymed jinas words (i.e. suffix is same but meaning is different). There are few kinds of tajnis:

... Aşıq gərəbu meydanda bir qala,
Eşq odunu bir ətəklə, bir qala!
Ələsgərdi Xeybər kimi bir qala,
Bacara bilməzsan dur yerində kəs,
Danışma əbəs....(Aşıq Ələsgər)

1. Dodaqdaymaz tajnis
This type of tajnis is formed without b-p-m consonants. Because is difficult very few ashugs have used the same form. Ashug Alesger had created the best examples:

...Səyyad dəryalarda alar çəng ələ,
Həsrət çəkər: çiskin gələ, çən gələ,
Əzrayıl sinəni çəkər çəngələ,
Qəssab qəşş eləyər, ay ağa, ağa...(Ashıq Alesger) 

2. Ayaqly tajnis 
Ayaqly tajnis is called a tajnis when used 5-6 syllabled hemistiches at end of each couplet:

... Aşıq gərəbu meydanda bir qala,
Eşq odunu bir ətəklə, bir qala!
Ələsgərdi Xeybər kimi bir qala,
Bacara bilməzsan dur yerində kəs,
Danışma əbəs....(Ashıq Alesger)
 
3. Jigaly tajnis 
Jigaly tajnis is formed by adding ciga (bayati) to site after two hemistiches of the each couplet:

...Ay bimürvət həsrətini çəkməkdən,
İllər ilə xəstə düşdüm başa-baş.
Mən aşığam başa-baş,
Oxu dərsin başa-baş.
Eşqin səməndərəm,
Oda yandım başa-baş.
Can deyənə can deginən mərdana
Baş qoyanınqoy yolunda başa-baş... (Ashuq Alesger)

Azerbaijan ashuq poetry 
Ashuq creative art was a successor of ozan art historically, and it was formed in the oral form. There are few evidences showing that ashuq poetry is a composition part of the folk art.  
1. Ashuq Poetry arises in the oral form, it is based on lively spoken language.
2. Ashuq Poem has arisen based on people poem, its poetical measures.
3. Ashuq fulfills private function in the system of folklore creative art.
But differently from other areas of the oral folk art, ashuq literary examples, especially an author of ashuq poem, is known mostly. 
Ashuqs have carried names like ata, dada, ozan, yanshaq, varsaq in different periods. Being syncretic (joint) art ashuq art connects the kinds of different creative works like music, poem and dance. Ashugs can be divided into two basic groups: ustad (Teacher ashuqs and ifachy (performer) ashuqs. Ustad ashuqs take part in the ashuq poetry and epos creative work  as authors,  but ifachy ashuqs are engaged in performer works of their ustads. Dirili Qurbani, Abbas Tufarqanlı, Sarı Ashıq, Khasta Qasım, Ashuq Alı, Ashuq Alesgər, Ashıq Shamshir, Huseyn Bozalqanlı, Ashuq Huseyn Javan, Mikayıl Azaflı, Ashuq Panah etc are ustad ashuqs. Ashuq Kamandar, Ashuq Huseyn Saraclı, Ashuq Adalet etc ifachi (performer) ashuqs.   

Azerbaijani ashuq poetry includes few ashuq schools and ashuq environment:
1. Anadolu school (Qaygusuz Abdal, Pir Sultan Abdal, Ashuq Dardli, Ashuq Seyrani, Jamal Khoja, Yunus İmra etc.) 
2. Shirvan school (Mullah Qasim, Dada Karam, Dada Yedgar, Melikbally Qurban, Gullubeyim, Molla Cuma, Ashuq Beyler, Ashuq Sakir etc). Zagatala ashuq environment was included in Shirvan school, too.
3. Goycha school  Asug Allahverdi, ashuq Ali, ashug Basir, Novrast Iman, ashuq Talib, Ashug Alesger etc). 
Environments of the Goycha school:
a)  Borchali environment
b)  Environments of Dereleyez, Erevan, Cıldır
c)  Garabagh environment



Oxunub: 31057



Azərbaycan Televiziyaları
İnternet Radio