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Azerbaijani literary language

  


Azerbaijani language is one of the ancient languages passed great development way. If language of the epos of Kitabi Dada Qorqud” is accepted as  oral kind of the literary language, then an age of the language that serves as a lingua franca (communicative means) for people  is over 1300 years. Moreover, language features of ghazals of Hasanoglu, Dastani Ahmed Harami and etc works of this kind one again proves that Azerbaijan literary language had been functioning since very old times. But history of Azerbaijani written literary language begins since XIII according to materials being available in the hand for the present time. 
Development history of Azerbaijani literary language about 800 years  is divided into two big periods. Ancient time covers about XIII-XVII centuries and new time the period after XVII century.

Ancient period 
Area of usage of Azerbaijani literary language differs with its range. This language which was a state language of palace and army of Azerbaijani states like Jalairis, Qaraqoyunlu,  Agqoyunlu, Sewavids had played the role of literary language all Near Asia. Literary language of the same period differs from Azerbaijani language of modern period with exterior and interior language features. 
Phonetic differences between periods are big. So, Azerbaijani literary language of new period is at the same typical with becoming stable of the phoneme composition, too. The o//a vowel, t//d, m//b, h//q//x consonant balance belonging to first period already results with victory of first (o and t, m, h): av-ov; dutmaq-tutmaq; bən-mən; qanı-xanı-hanı etc  
At this period some words of ancient Azerbaijani literary language, used jointly with Ottoman language begins to lose efficiency in the new period (şimdi, şöylə, şu, kəndi etc.). It was a result of the completion of separation (differentiation) of the Turkic literary languages. At the same time active words in ancient Azerbaijani Turkic language (sayru – xəstə, güz-payız, görklü-gözəl, tanıq-şahid, uçmaq-cənnət, ayıtmaq-demək etc) begins to get archived. 
Similar situation shows itself in the grammar area, too. Balance of accusative case suffixes of nouns( –yi, - yı, - yu, - yü// - ni, - nı, - nu, -nü)  related to 1st period  had disappeared in the 2nd period. Tense suffix of verb in definite future tense ( -isər) gave its position entirely to  -acaq//- əcək, and suffix of 3rd pronoun( –dürür) gave its position to ¬-dür (hökmdürür-hökmdür) suffix etc. 
In the syntaxes the structure of words’ combination of ancient Azerbaijani literary language mostly was subjected to Arabic-Persian izafet. That is attributive word comes after word being attributed:  çeşmi-giryan-göz yaşı, saliki-rahi-həqiqət-həqiqət yolunun yolçuları etc. But in the 2nd period the attributive word as a rule comes before a word being attributed.   
Two styles had shown itself in the ancient time especially: Style of classic-book and spoken folklore. From formation and development viewpoint of these styles this period is divided into two semi-stages: 1) From most ancient times till the end of XII century. It is a beginning of the forming of Azerbaijani literary language. There is a monument of oral language. Written literary examples are affirmed with indirect facts. 2) The period from XIII century till early of XVII century. Book style is formed in this stage). Its language is characterized with majority of the elements of foreign language. This style develops rapidly and gets a leading position as Arabic and Persian are used as state language in Azerbaijan. Spoken folklore style comes after it. Tabriz-Shirvan dialects act as base of the literary language.

New period
This period of Azerbaijani literary language covers three stages: 1) Stage of creation of the literary language (XVIII century); 2) Stage of formation of the national language and its development (XIX century and the first quarter of XX century); 3) Modern stage (after the first quarter of the XX century).
Azerbaijani language had reached development stage at this period ((stage of formation of the national literary language and development). At this period besides poems prose and dramatic works began to be written, newspaper and journals have begun to publish, some official documents were compiled, scientific studies have been carried out). 
Three basic inclinations show itself in the XX century in development of Azerbaijani literary language: 1) Inclination to identify the literary language with people language. It shows self obviously in writings of Molla Nasreddin journal, works of writers like J.Mammadquluzade, A.Haqverdiyev; 2) Inclination to create literary language that based more on Ottoman (Turkic) and tradition of the ancient Azerbaijani language. It shows self mostly in language of some journals and newspapers like Fuyuzat and Hayat and enlightening writer like A.Huseynzade writers. This language was not differed from that time\'s Turkish literary language; 3) Inclination to create literary language becoming clear to all, based on norms of literary language. This language, which does subject to influence of any dialect, was created by poets and writers like A.Shaig, J.Jabbarli, S.Huseyn, A.Sahhat. This situation in the area of literary language continued since early of century till 30-es. 
One of important events in the modern stage of new period Azerbaijani literary language was obtaining of status of state language of Azerbaijani literary language. 
Problem of state language being one of important attributes of the independent state has been in the centre of attention of the government of Azerbaijan People Republic. By Decision dated June 27, 1918 Government of Republic had declared the Azerbaijani language being then called as Turkic as state language. 
Azerbaijani language has been affirmed as state language in the Constitution of Azerbaijan SSR (1978). In 1995 Azerbaijani language was re-affirmed as state language of the independent the Azerbaijan Republic in the new Constitution by national referendum. 
 Azerbaijani literary language is a form of people’s language that was strictly polished and having serious phonetic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic norms and serving the public. 
Literary language has written and oral forms. Oral literary language (voiced language) is very ancient, it has been used as expression means for a long period in folklore in absence of written literary language. First examples of the written language was language of official documents, letters of the state heads, art works and as well as language of the religious texts. By developing of the society the area of usage of written literary language had expanded, too



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