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TRIBES, TRIBAL UNIONS AND STATES IN THE TERRITORY OF MINOR ASIA. (III-II MILLENNIUM BC)
Many ancient states were established in the territory of Azerbaijan before Islam and some of them reached the level of the empire.
According to the most ancient written sources in III-II millennium BC, the southern lands of modern day Azerbaijan was in the geographical structure of Shumer-Akkad. The first tribal combination of the people in the territory of Azerbaijan was established at the end of the Bronze Age. Kur-Araz culture proves that our ancestors, even at that time, i.e. in II millennium BC knew the farming well.
First written sources related to tribes lived then in South Azerbaijan and neighboring lands belong to XXV-XXIII centuries BC and they wrote in Akkadian in Urmia region. But the Turkish power in the territory of Azerbaijan dates back to 4 thousand years BC ago. Sources, especially mention about arattas, quts (qutis), lullubis and khurris. However, according to scientific sources, the first Turkish state established in the territory of South Azerrbaijan is Aratta. Information on Aratta people was noted in Shumer epic. Events between the ruler of Aratta Sukussiranna and the ruler of Shumer Merkar were reflected in that story.
The state of Aratta was appeared in the first half of the III millennium BC. Its lands had covered the south and south-eastern part of the Lake Urmia. The modern Qazvin-Zanjan area was also within borders of Aratta.
The population of Aratta manufactured gold, lead, copper, mining stones and precious stones and colored stones. They exported their goods to Shumer state, which was dominated between two rivers – the Tigris and the Euphrates.
In the second half of the III millennium BC Shumer city-states declined. In XXIV-XXII centuries, they were subjugated to the rule of the state of Akkad. At that time, the state of Aratta ended its existence. At that time, in the southern part of Lake Urmiya the union of lullubu (Lullubi) tribes was established. Lullubis appeared on historical scene thanks to Su and Turukki tribes. The creation of this tribal unity was realized on XXIII century BC.
Lullubus were engaged in cattle-breeding and irrigation. Likewise Arratas they were also under strong influence of the Shumer culture. They know cuneiform writing, and they had scholars that could contact Akkadians.
The united Lullubu state had been disintegrated in small parts at the II millennium.
BC. There were tribal unions in the western and southern-western part of Lake Urmia in III millennium of BC. After second half of same millennium they united as single state. Qutis had alliance with Shumers. But they resisted sharply to the aggressive policy of Akkadians.
The grandson of the ruler of the Akkad Sarqon Naramsin (Naram-Suen) (2236-2201 BC) had increased the aggression against the tribes living in Urmiye region. The heads of the 70 tribes living there have established a united military alliance. So, Akkadian army was defeated. Naramsin was killed under the leadership of the ruler of Qutis Anridavazir and they forwarded to South Mesopotamia and seized the southern holy city of Shumers Nippur. It is assumed that, after this incident Qutis again returned to their homes in the South-eastern Anatolia and the conflicted with lullubis.
Quti state was a state formed from tribal unions. It united Turkic tribes like subar, turuk, kuman, bars, bori, gargar,azer, zengi etc. Sources reported that qutis were driven out from Mesopotamia at the end of XXIII century BC. Their power lasted 91 years 40 days. The biggest feature of the Quti state was its governing on democratic basis. In neighboring countries, the power passed from father to son but in qutis the power was elected at assembly, at which “folk elders and “folk” beks participated. The capital of Quti dynasty was present Kirkuk (Arrapha).
The names of some Quti elbek (rulers) mentioned in writings of Akkad: Yarlaqab, Yarlaqas, Yarlaqan, Sarlaqab, Elulu (mesh), Inim-Abaqes (in Orkhon-Yenisei monuments Kultigin was addressed as Inim Kultigin), Kurum, Tirikan. It is known that the word qut in Turkish ethimology used in meaning of dominion, success, life, spirit and the name of Avar (turk) ruler being in power in 553 was Kuti-Khan. There are a lot of arguments from history proving Turkic origin of Qutis.
There is information about lullubis in the inscriptions of the ruler of Akkad Naramsin. The first written monuments belonged to self of Lullubi rulers relate to the XXIII century BC. If the inscription belonged to King Anubanini, carved in the rock at place called Sarınul is taken as the basis, it becomes clear that Lullubi lands stretched from the lake Urmiya till Basra (Kangar) Gulf.
Sumer sources confirm that the native land of Khurris is the South Caucasus, regions around Lake Van and North Zagros. Shumer sources name their areas as Khurrum.
Some historians relate Khurris to 4th biggest and cultural nation of the Asia Minor along with Shumer, Akkadians and Elam in view of possession of writing and written sources at the end of III millennium. From historical facts one can conclude that the state of Mitanni was created by Khurris. And it is certain that Mitannis are descendants of the Turks. Even Lake Urmia was mentioned as Mantiana. It was also mentioned in the sources that Kassu people lived around the Lake Urmiya.
One of the most ancient nations of South Azerbaijan was Turks, and among 17 rules that united against Naramsin was a ruler called Illusumel. The geographical area of living of Turukkis stretched from Lake Urmiya to Zanjan. Turukkis acted on the historical scene at the same time of gutis and ullubis.
The languages of tribes and other ethnos assumed lived in lands of modern Azerbaijan during late of III millennium BC and early of II millennium BC were united in big language groups named Zaqr-Elam, Zaqros, Kaspi, etc. Some scientists assume that Nah-Dagestani language group belonging to northern–eastern Caucasian language group had affinity to Khurri and Urartu languages.
Subars lived in the basin of Lake Urmiya in III-II millennium. Subars took participation not only in formation of Azerbaijani people but many Turkic peoples. Subars lived between rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and Semitic tribes came here later concentrated around the Akkad city state and causes its strengthening. The king of Akkad Sarqon attacked in XXIV century BC region of Subars and driven out subars from there. At the beginning of the II millennium BC, Assyrian power strengthened in Subar lands. Subars that subjected to attacks of akkadians from north, khurris from north-east and Semitic–Assyrian tribes from south were divided into three branches as western, middle, and eastern. Subars forwarded to west on the 38th parallel, mixed with peoples of those areas. On the same direction some part of people settled in basin of Lake Urmia moved towards Siberia and Turkistan. The name of Siberia is linked with subars. Subars remained in the Middle part settled in the upper part of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, west of Lake Van and in settlements between present Bitlis and Diyarbakır. At that time, these areas were under power of Mutanni state established by khurris. In XIII century when Mitanni state was collapsed subars had created their small khanates in Arme, Urmia, Kulmeri, Turkhu and other parts They united and established Subar kingdom to resist the Assyria and newly established Urartu states. Subar state could preserve its independence till 673 BC.
Sami tribes were settled in early of III millennium BC in the north side of the Euphrates and Tigris River. When the political authority of the Ahamenid state of Aryan origin reached the Northern Caucasus Mountains, tribes living in North Azerbaijan had already appeared on the stage of history. The most prominent of them are Kaspis, and the name of the Caspian Sea is their memory. Kaspis are relatives of one of the outstanding people of ancient times Kassis. BC They were mixed inside of Albanian tribes at the end of I millennium. Their residence area was Mugan-Lankaran lowland. The art of navigation was well mastered by Kaspis.
Some people assume that part of tribes lived in that period in the territory of Azerbaijan included in Turan system.