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Azerbaijan SSR

  


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After the collapse of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic on April 28, 1920 the Soviet power is established in Azerbaijan. The power in the country is given to Provisional Revolutionary Committee (Central Executive Committee). Including of only Azerbaijani communists like (Nariman Narimanov (chairman), Aliheydar Song, Gazanfar Musabekov, Hamid Sultanov, etc.) in the Central Executive Committee, which carries out legislation functions was an attempt to disguise the Russian occupation. The real power in the Republic belonged to Central Committee (AK(b) P CC) of Azerbaijan Communist Party (Bolshevik) Party, which had been subordinated to Moscow.
On May 1, 1920 – Units of XI Red Army, which overthrown the Democratic Republic in Baku passed through Shamakhy and Agsu without any resistance and reached Ganja and after a short battle captured the city of Ganja.
On May 3, 1920 the Soviet power began to spread to the whole territory of Azerbaijan. Provisional Revolutionary Committee adopted a decree on establishment of provincial, rural revolutionary committees. The military and naval forces of Bolsheviks in Baku Bay moved towards the south and captured Lankaran and Astara. Poor army of Democratic Republic was remained only in Garabagh and fought with Armenian forces.
On May 5, 1920 - the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan adopted a decree on confiscation of lands of all khan, beys without compensation and gave them to villagers. After a few years those lands would be taken by force from villagers and given to collective farms.
On May 7, 1920 - The Bolshevik government of Azerbaijan adopted a decree on the reorganization of the army and the navy. Implementation of the decree accompanied with repressions against national officers. And sovetizied army and navy of Azerbaijan existed formally until 1922 and in December of the same year with the creation of the USSR, it was included in the Soviet Army’s Caucasian Unit.
On May 12, 1920 - the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan had adopted a Decree on establishment of the national courts. Counterrevolution and the Extraordinary Commissions was established for combating counter-revolution and provocations and also decided to annul civilian ranks. 
On May 15, 1920 - the People\'s Commissariat of Education adopted a decree on the Declaration of the freedom of conscience, and separation of the religion from the state and school.
On May 24, 1920 - The Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan had adopted a Decree on nationalization of the oil industry. In fact, the oil was given the control of Russia. To this end, the Azerbaijan Oil Committee was created and heading of the Committee was assigned to Alexander Serebrovski that sent by Lenin. After the oil industry Caspian commercial fleet, banks of country were nationalized.
On June 3, 1920 - Democratic Republic’s army led by Nuru Pasha, which resisted to Bolshevik occupation of Garabagh and Zangezur had seized the city of Shusha. The additional units of the XI Russian Red army are sent against them. Being more in number the Russian troops re-occupied the city on June 15 under the command of Levandovski. The small parts of the national army retread to Jabrayil province. By the end of June this region was occupied by Bolsheviks. Rebellions against the sovetization took place by the end of the year in Shamkir, Guba and other regions. 
On May 6, 1921 - the first all-Azerbaijan Soviet Congress (May 6- 19) starts. Congress adopts the first Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR. Provisional Revolutionary Committee and local committees of the revolution and the poor were canceled, and as the supreme legislative body the Central Executive Committee (Central Executive Committee, the first chairman Mukhtar Hajiyev) and the local Soviet was established. The leading body of Central Executive Committee (75 members and 25 candidate) of Azerbaijan was Administrative Board (13 members), included by Republican Party (Azerbaijan Communist Party) leadership. 1400 local village soviets with 30 thousand deputies were organized in the republic. In 1921-1937 the 9th Congress of all-Azerbaijan Soviets was held and in 1938 it was replaced by the Supreme Soviet.
On July 2, 1921 - The first high school preparing teacher staff, currently operating under the name of the Azerbaijan Pedagogical University - the Men\'s Educational Institute (later Azerbaijan State Pedagogical Institute named after V.I.Lenin) was established.
On July 5, 1921 – at the meeting of the Caucasian Bureau of the Russian Communist (Bolshevik) Party it was decided to retain the Nagorno-Karabakh region in the structure of Azerbaijan SSR. A day earlier, on July 4 at the plenary session of the Caucasian Bureau of Russian Communist (Bolshevik) Party the Armenian side with support of Kirov and Ordjonikidze could achieve an adoption of decision on giving of Nagorno-Garabagh to Armenia. However, the communist leadership of Azerbaijan, headed by N. Narimanov protested sharply, and as a result of the interference of Russian Communist (Bolshevik) Party this decision has been canceled. However, in decision of the Caucasian Bureau of the RC (b) Party dated July 5 it was noted that Nagorno-Garabagh will remain within Azerbaijan with the center city of Shusha and having wide range of provincial autonomy. Thus, the Armenians could not achieve main objective but have gained autonomy. Nagorno-Garabagh Autonomous Region was established in 1923.
On July 7, 1923 - The Central Executive Committee of the Azerbaijan SSR adopted a Decree on organization of Nagorno-Garabagh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) in the territory of the Republic. It was noted in the document that this decree would serve for strengthening of international solidarity” between Azerbaijani and Armenian peoples. According to Decree it was intended to “establish the autonomous region as part of Azerbaijan SSR in the Armenian part of Nagorno-Garabagh. In 1921, the recommended decision on this subject was adopted by the Caucasus Regional Bureau of RC (b) Party. Though in that decision the center of the autonomy was shown as Shusha, but in decree of Azerbaijan\'s Central Executive Committee Khankendi was elected as a center of the region. Soon on the initiative of the Armenian Khankendi was reamed as Stepanakert.  After territorial –administrative division the area of NKAO was defined as 4.4 thousand kv.kms. 
On August 30, 1930 - by the decision of the Central Executive Committee and Council of People\'s Commissars of Azerbaijan the territory of the republic was divided into new administrative units - regions. Under the decision, 63 the regions were created. In addition, as the territorial-administrative division of the republic 10 constituencies (Baku, Ganja, Garabagh (Agdam), Guba, Kurdistan, Lankaran, Mugan (Salyan), Shirvan (Goychay), Nuha, Zagatala) and settlements were in their structure.
On August 7, 1932 – by the decision of the Soviet government on “Protection of property of state-owned enterprises, collective farms and cooperatives a severe punishment was started in the national economy. According to the decision, even for a small theft of state property a punishment was shooting, at best case 10 years of imprisonment. Document named in the Soviet history as “Law on five ears of corn” created a ground for repression in Azerbaijan’s agriculture. 
On June 24, 1938 – the elections for I convocation of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR were held. 107 workers, 88 collective farmers and the 115 –employees-nobles were elected to 310-seat parliament. Among people\'s deputies 72 were women. In fact, as all of the functions of the state were concentrated in hands of the Communist Party adopts the Supreme Soviet had a formal operating functions.
On 1938 - despite the protest of the local population of Lachin, Gubadli, Kalbajar and Gazakh regions 2 hectares of land areas from these regions were given to Armenian SSR by the decision of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR. However, the decision was not implemented. 31 years later, on May 7, 1969 despite the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR had confirmed it but Heydar Aliyev that came to power soon could prevent the implementation of this decision.
On June 2, 1938 - the first group of civil aviation was organized in Azerbaijan. In 1915, the first aviation school was established in Baku in 1923 and the fist civil air route of the Baku-Tbilisi was opened. The first airport was given to use in Bina in 1933, and the first aviation groups began flights in 1938.
On June 25, 1987 - the plenum of the Central Committee of Communist Party of the Soviet Union makes a decision on reconstruction (perestroyka). The course of reconstruction announced by the General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, first of all, though aimed for the socio-economic reforms; soon it covered the political and ideological spheres, too. In all the Soviet Union (including Azerbaijan) the process of freedom of speech, publicity, national movements began. Reconstruction policy resulted in the collapse of the Soviet Union four years later. 
On May 21, 1988 - The leadership of the USSR changes both leaders of Azerbaijan and Armenia to settle the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan on Nagorno Garabagh. At Plenum of Central Committee of Communist Party of Armenia Karen Demirchyan and at Plenum of Central Committee of Communist Party of Azerbaijan Kamran Bagirov was ousted. Abdurrahman Vezirov was selected as 1st Secretary of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan.
On July 18, 1988 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR had a big meeting dedicated to the Nagorno-Garabagh conflict. At the meeting chaired by M. Gorbachev political leadership of Azerbaijan and Armenia, deputies of both republics in the USSR Supreme Soviet took part. At meeting with tense discussions the decision of   the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. On the issue of Nagorno-Garabagh was adopted. Although the document states that the decision of Supreme Soviet of Armenian SSR on annexation of Nagorno-Garabagh is unacceptable and to be cancelled, but leadership of Armenian SSR left this call unattended.
On July 16, 1989 - the founding conference of the Popular Front of Azerbaijan was held in Baku in semi secret conditions. This was partly organization of national people\'s movement which began with the beginning of Garabagh events. Abulfaz Elchibey was elected as Chairman of Popular Front of Azerbaijan. But Board of Directors of Popular Front consisted of 16 persons with quite different opinions and soon separation began in organization.
On May 19, 1990 – the post of President of the Republic of Azerbaijan was established in the Supreme Soviet session. At session the 1st Secretary of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutalibov was elected as the President. After election of Secretary General of the Central Committee of the USSR M. Gorbachev as President, the leaders of the union republics acted similarly. 
On May 21, 1990 the Presidential decree on declaration of May 28 as “Day of restoration of the statehood of Azerbaijan was announced.
On June 27, 1991 - Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan had decided to participate in the treaty “On the Union of sovereign states. Signing of the new union treaty failed as a result of August revolt in Moscow.
On August 30, 1991 - at an extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet, after intense discussions, the Declaration on On restoration the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted. The document stated that Republic of Azerbaijan is successor of the People\'s Republic that existed in the 1918-1920. In addition, the parliament adopted a decision to prepare a separate law -   Constitutional Act to form the constitutional grounds of state independence of Azerbaijan.
On September 8, 1991 - The first presidential elections was held in Azerbaijan. At elections that were boycotted by most of the country\'s political forces, including the Popular Front,   and held in non-alternative conditions the 1st secretary of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutalibov was elected a President.
On October 18, 1991, after the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan Republic adopted the Constitutional Act on the independence, Azerbaijan SSR was declined and independent Republic of Azerbaijan was created. 
The first secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan: 
1. Sergei Kirov - July 24, 1921 - January 1925 
2. Ruhulla Akhundov - 1925 - 1926 
3. Levon Mirzoyan  - January 21, 1926 - August 5, 1929 
4. Nikolay Gikalo - August 5, 1929 - August 5, 1930 
5. Vladimir Polonski -August 5, 1930 - January 1933 
6. Ruben Rubenov -   February 7, 1933 - December 10, 1933 
7. Mirjafar Bagirov-   December 15, 1933 - April 6, 1953 
8. Mirteymur Final - April 6, 1953 - February 12, 1954 
9. Imam Mustafayev - February 16, 1954 - July 8, 1959 
10. Veli Akhundov - July 10, 1959 - July 14, 1969 
11. Heydar Aliyev - July 14, 1969 - December 3, 1982 
12. Kamran Bagirov - December 3, 1982 - May 21, 1988 
13. Abdurrahman Vezirov - May 21, 1988 - January 20, 1990 
14. Ayaz Mutalibov - January 25, 1990 - September 14, 1990 



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