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Garagoyunlu state

  


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Garagoyunlular being originally from Yiva kin of Oghuzs had played an important role e history of the Near and Middle East. Historical sources provide information on their living in Azerbaijan since the VII century. These tribes moved to Eastern Anatolia during campaigns of the Mongol tribes had established strong tribal union in the second half of the XIV century, under the leadership of Bayram Khoja after decline of the state of Elkhanid, in cities of Archis and Van, as central cities. Being involved in political events of the end of the XIV century, Garagoyunlular made their positions stronger in regions of Surmeli, Hoy and Nakhichevan and could capture Tabriz several times under the command of Gara Yusif. During military campaigns of Amir Timur Gara Yusif demonstrated strong resistance together with Jalairi Sultan Ahmed, finally forced to seek support first from Ottoman sultan and then the sultan of Egypt. After the death of Amir Timur in 1405 suing the struggle between the heirs of Amir Timur Gara Yusif Black, had defeated Teymuri Abu Bakri in 1406 in the vicinity of Nakhichevan and in April 1408 near the Tabriz at Sardrud battle, so put an end to reign of Teymurids in Azerbaijan. In August 1420 Gara Yusuf, defeated Jalairi Sultan Ahmed near Tabriz and put an end to the state of Jalairis and established Garagoyunlu state with capital in Tabriz. Garagoyunlu state included lands to the south from Kura River, Eastern Anatolia, Iraq and the Arab Iraq and Ajam Iraq. During Jahanshah (1436-1467) he attacked in 1453-1458 Ajem Iraq, Mazandaran and Khorasan and as a result borders of the state expended in the east towards Khorasan. Though Herat was seized in 1458, according to the contract concluded with Teymuri Abu Said Garagoyunlular had left Heart.
During the campaign on Aggoyunlu in November 1467 Jahanshah was attacked by Uzun Hasan in place Sanjak near Mush and was killed. After defeating the son of Jahansha Hasan Alin in 1468, the   Garagoyunlu state declined.
Tabriz was the capital

Rulers in power: 
1392-1420  Gara Yusuf
1421-1438  Qara İsgender
1429-1431  Abu Said
1438-1467  Jahanshah
1467-1468  Hasanali



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