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The liberal national-democratic ideology in Azerbaijan.

  


In the early XX century a liberal national-democratic movement, the prominent members of which were A. Agaoglu, A. Huseynzade M.E.Rasulzadeh unfolds in Azerbaijan. 
A. Agaogly (1868-1939) saw the Turk solution of the social problems in education. The works of A. Agaoglu in social philosophy, continuing the ideological line of Dzh.Afgani,  have been published in Azerbaijan, Turkey, France and the UK. A. Agaoglu, studying in the East and West, the problems of philosophy, religion and culture in general, wrote about the influence of Western culture in Brahmanic Buddha and Islamic values and the relevance of the synthesis of these cultural values to the Eastern world. His works (Three Cultures, The State and the individual, The woman in Islam for the sake of Islam , In the country of free people, etc.) contain studies of  philosophy, sociology, religion and ethics issues, and give definitions to the  categories of social philosophy and culture controversial in science such as culture, language, religion, nation, etc.  A. Agaoglu calls to respect religion and use it to educate the society, while insisting on the separation of religion from the state. 
A mathematician, physician, scholar, artist and philosopher A. Guseynzade (1864-1940), who was educated in Eastern countries, Russia and Europe, was one of the founders of the philosophical foundations of the ideology of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. 
 A. Guseynzade, who was subjected to harassment of the royal power for his concepts of National Azerbaijan, Revival of Islamic region-wide and Turan, immigrated to Turkey. He saw great importance in the synthesis of Eastern and Western cultures in the development of the Turkic peoples, and, speaking from the position of Turkism, Islam and the need for Europeanization, saw the relevant issue of the Islamic world in the integration of the Islamic world to the world civilization through education. A. Guseynzade emphasized the humanistic ideology of all religions. A. Guseynzade, who opposed the social revolution, marked the symbol of education in green and the one of revolution in dark blue. In his artistic and philosophical writings (Policy of a jump and Fiyuzat) he tells the story in an abstract form of Turkism, Turkic culture, happiness and love - as a philosophical category of happiness. A. Guseynzade saw the happiness and welfare of all peoples in education, freedom, and enlightening the Armenian expansion against Azerbaijan revealed the essence of chauvinism and internationalism. 
M.E. Rasulzadeh (1884-1955) was a thinker, writer, political activist, representative of the Enlightenment and democratic ideological current. The basic principle of his activity is expressed in his slogan - Sovereignity to nations, freedom to people. Through his first works M. E. Rasulzadeh became known as the bearer of the ideas of freedom and independence. He was one of the founders of the national idea of Independent Azerbaijan and the State concept. Theoretical heritage of M.E.Rasulzadeh, based on this concept, is particularly reflected in his writings: The Republic of Azerbaijan, Siyavush of our Age, National Unity, The idea of independence and youth, Literature of Modern Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani poet Nizami, The history of modern Azerbaijan.  
He views the national identity and self – consciousness of the nation as the way to the national independence. He was the bearer of the idea of free Azerbaijanism. M.E. Rasulzadeh studied categorical concepts of culture, national culture, cultural living, Millennium, the national language, as well as major theoretical problems of social philosophy and cultural studies. In his work Siyavush of our Age M.E. Rasulzadeh says about equality for all citizens of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, founded on the idea of national independence, regardless of ownership, gender, origin, creed, etc. However, he did not refer the equality of rights to the private property. 
At the beginning of the XX century, along with the liberal national-democratic ideology in Azerbaijan, the periodical press of the bourgeois-landlord bias, the Molla Nasreddin magazine,  the Gummetnewspaper etc. spread radical, democratic and Marxist ideas. Despite the common or similar features of these ideological trends in matters of language, national culture, education, women, foreign policy, particularly Russian and Armenian expansion, there were serious differences in areas such as private property, its redistribution, the actual enforcement of workers’ property rights, their participation in parliamentary and government structures and the problems associated with social class interests. If the first course placed the nation and national interests as a whole at the forefront, as well as  the nation\'s relations with the Turkic-Muslim region and the idea of fighting for freedom, the second who were the representatives of radical movements aimed at learning  the relationship of social and national classes, the social position of workers, peasants, capitalists and landowners, and, speaking on behalf of the fanatical religious leaders and the people, fought with national politicians who betrayed the interests of the nation. At the same time representatives of the radical movements have sought to enlighten all the reality in an accessible language and bring it to the public attention. These issues are reflected in the writings of Jalil Mamedguluzadeh (Molla Nasreddin magazine), Mirza Alekber Sabir ,Aligulu Gamkusar, Omar Fa\'iq Nemanzadeh, U. Hajibeyov, Samad bey Mehmandarov, Minasazov Hussein and others, as well as in acute satiric genre of the period. Azerbaijani political satire, once reflected in the philosophical poetry, became the effective genre of the modern period. 



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