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Mughams

  


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Mugham is a national music form belonging to the peoples of the East. It is an example of classical music based on oral traditions. Mugam forms the base of Azerbaijan folk music. There are seven main mugham in music of Azerbaijan: Rast, Shur, Segah, Shushtar, Chargah, Bayati-Shiraz, Humayun.
Mughams differ from each other according to the original essence and nature of music. Uzeir Hajibeyov in his  scientific-theoretical book “Basis  of Azerbaijan folk music” characterizes an explains the mood given to listeners by mughams as:   “Rast” inspires a courage and cheerfulness in listeners , Shur - funny, lyrical mood, Segah - a feeling of love, Shushter - a deep sadness, Chargah - a feeling of excitement and passion, Bayati-Shiraz - sadness, Humayun - creates a feeling of deep sorrow.
Mugam is performed by trio of  tar, kamancha, and folk singer.
But mughams performed in solo at Azerbaijan national musical instruments is called as instrumental mughams.
Works of Azerbaijani composers in its roots are connected with mughams. This is aspect of their national specificity.
Fikret Amirov by composing in 1948 Shur and Kurd-Ovsarı symphonic mugams had laid a foundation of symphonic mugham music genre in history of world music literature. “Rast” symphonic mugham of well-known composer and conductor Niyazi (1949) is a work created in this genre.

MUGHAM MASTERS - Many well-known Azerbaijani Mugam masters- performers included in the music art of Azerbaijan. They are masters of the art of the nineteenth century, Sattar, Haji Husi – who established popular school of mugham. From well-known masters of the art of the XIX century  names of Sattar, Haji Husu, Mashadi Isi, Alesker Shirin, tar player Sadıqjanın and others, an in the beginning of our century Jabbar Qaryagdıoglu, Mashadi Jamil Amirov, Seid Shushinski, Kechechi oglu Mahammad,  Mashad Mammad Farzaliyev, Islam Abdullayev and others should be cites especially.
Khan Shushinski, Zulfu Adigozalov, Hashim Kalantarli, Huseyngulu Sarabski, Haqiqat Rzayeva, Surayya Gajar, Fatma Mukhtarova are  famous singers lived in the early twentieth century. During this period, the instrumental mugham performers like Qurban Pirimov, Mansur Mansurov, Ahmed Bakikhanov, Bahram Mansurov and others can be noted.

SYMPHONIC MUGAM - the genre was created in 1948 by composer Fikret Amirov. The main feature of the genre is that the music here kept the dramaturgic moving line, gradual development principle in ascending order, its composition specific to dastgah, and at the same time symphonic working, different methods of orchestra were applied in development of mugham melodies. 
Many composers of Azerbaijan have applied to this genre. Niyazi created Rast, S. Alasgarov Bayati-Shiraz, F. Amirov Gulistan Bayati-Shiraz, T. Bakikhanov Humayun, Neva, Rahab, etc. symphonic mughams.

ZARBI MUGHAM - vocal and instrumental genre of music in oral tradition professional music in Azerbaijan. Creation of zarb mugams, formation and development is connected with performance of  the folk singers and ensembles. In the text of the zarbi mugams ghazals of classic poets, as well as bayati and qoshma are used. Widespread zarbi mugams in practice of Azerbaijan mugham performance: Heyraty, Mansuriyya, Samayi-Shams, Maani, Ovsharı (Afsarı), Arazbarı, Heydari, Garabaghh Shikeste, Kesme shikasta,Shirvan Shikeste , etc.

RAST
Rast is considered as the mother of all mugams. It has a very ancient history. From 12 main mugams of classical Eastern music only “Rast” mugam has some sections and parts that stood against events of the time with the devastating impact. Main of them are Mayeeyi-Rast” , Usshaq, Husseini, Vilayati, Araq and Panjgah. 

SHUR
Like Rast and Chargah mughams this mugham has big  volume as well. There are a lot of sections. Shur dastgah with parts that are included in Mayeyi-Shur, Shur-Shahnaz, Bayati-Gajar, Shikasteyi-fars, Simayi-Shams, Hijaz, Saranj has more in-depth content and complete system, the form.

SEGAH
One of the wide-spread and having deep national characteristics mugams in Azerbaijan is  Segah. Singer and players perform Segah mugham in a number of ways: The Middle Segah (or Zabul Segah), Mirza Hussein segah. Though they differ from each other in names and tone but thay have same basis. Segah consists of four sections: Mayeyi-Segah, Shikasteyi-Fars, Mubarriqa, Araq.

SHUSHTAR
Shushtar is the smallest mugam in volume. Mainly consists of “Mayeyi-Shushtar and Tarkib” sections. As in other mughams when Shushtar performed in the form of the dastgah its starts with Bərdast introduction, and expands volume thanks to some color and tasnifs. At this time, Shushtar mugham is sounded mostly in instrumental version, in particular, in  kamancha.

CHAHARGAH
Known as the pearl of the classic works of art Chahargah mugam differs with very active spirit. Music of Chahargah mugham is full of contradictory intonations. Art image in Mayeyi-Chargah section is developed and approved in  larger scale and intensive form. One of the main factors of maye section of Chargah mugham that proves an importance is that section continues its development in Hasar” and Mansuriyya” sections and gets more dramatic, more lively nature. This is due to the fact that  Mayeyi-Chargah once again has anxious intonations worthy for active, very useful and the intensive development. 
 
BAYATI-SHIRAZ
For the deep influence of its listeners, Bayati-Shiraz is not back from other famous mughams. It has Mayeyi-Bayati-Shiraz, Nisibi-Faraz, Bayati Isfahan, Khavaran, Huzzal sections.
In Bayati-Shiraz mugham one of the biggest and largest sections is  Mayeyi-Bayati-Shiraz, and another Bayati-Isfahan. 

HUMAYUN
Humayun mugam is also widely spread in music of the peoples of the Middle East. Main parts of Humayun” mugam:  Mayeyi-Humayun, Shushtar and Tarkib sections.
In Instrumental version Mayeyi-Humayun is paid more and more attention, and all characteristic features ofthe department are noted. 

ARAZBARI - one of the zarb mughams. It is based on Shur point. The poetic text consists of folk bayatı At the end of each paragraph, words Ay zalim- hey despot” are repeated. Included in creative legacy of master ashugs like ashiq songs.

BAYATI - AJEM – mugham section. 2nd main part included in Bayati-Kurd small volume mugam (Ajem – in Arabic means people who are not Arab, and means bayati of Ajam).

BAYATI - ISFAHAN - Mugam section. One of the main  sections of Bayati-Shiraz mugham dastgah.

BAYATI - KURD - small-scale mugham. Included in Shur family of mughams. The structure consists of three sections: a) Bayati-Kurd b) Bayati-Ajem c) Bayati-Kur foot.

BAYATI - GAJAR – mugham dastgah. A set consists of Bardast, Maye, Husseini, Shikasta, Zil Bayati-Gajar, Zamin khara, Dugah, Mavarannahr, Shah Khatai, Ruhul-arvah.

BAYATI - RAJE – One of sections of Afshari mugam from Shur mugham family.

BAYATI – TURK – mugham section. Being included in Shur mugam, it forms transition to Rast point.

BAKHTIYARI – One of the first section sin  Humayun dastgah.

BARDASHT - introduction type mugham section, entry of dastgah. It is performed before Maye  section. And acts as preparatory to this section.  Each of the mugham dastgah begins with Bardasht.

BESTE - NİGAR – mugham section. One of the parts of Chahargah dastgah.

BIDAD - (in literal sense, complaint against injustice). Section of sad and  sorrowful mood performed in  Humayun dastgah’s 5th  fifth step.

JAMARDAN – in Eastern music: section than sung before “Bakhtiyari” section in Humayun dastgah;  One of 1st sections of Bayati Isfahan dastgah.

JIDAYI – mugham section. 2nd section of small-scale  Dashti” mugam from Shur family of mugham (in Persian cidayi –means javelin, bayonet\'). It has anxious feature.

DASHTI - (in Arabic: dasht means steppe, desert) - a small-scale mugham. Belongs to Shur mugam family.

DILKASH – music section. 2nd part of Shahnaz small-scale mugham. It is performed between Shahnaz and Saddi -Shahnaz.

DUGAH - Mugham. One of mughams belonging to  Rast mugham family. It is performed in the mi bemol rast point tones. Main sections: Bardasht, Mayeyi Dugah, Guseyi-Bayati Gajar, Ruhul-Arvah, Mavarannahr, Husseini, Shikasteyi-Fars, Dilruba, Araq, Zangi-Shutur, Rak and Dugah

ABU-ETA – One of small volume mughams belonging to Shur family. It includes Hijaz, Chahar-bagh, Sayyahi, Salmi (Salmak) sections.

ABULCHAP – mugham section. A small section played in Bayati-Shiraz mugham after Bayati-Isfahan” 

AMIRI - mugham section. It is performed in the beginning of Shushtar and Rahab” mughams.

HAJI YUNI – mugham section.  According to the information of A. Badalbeyli,it was performed in music of  Azerbaijan in XIX century in Ravahi dastgah between Bayati-Shiraz and Saranj and between Shahnaz and Bayati-Kurd in Neva dastgah.

HAZIN-  mugham section. It is used in Shur, Chahargah, Neva dastgah.

HUSSEINI (in Arabic “fine”) –one of 12 basic mughams of  the classical music of the the Middle Ages of the Eastern peoples.  . It is performed in  “Rast and Mahur HIndi mugham dastgahs between “ Usshaq and Vilayati sections.

KHARAZMI - one of the mugham sections.

KHARIJ SEGAH – one of dastgah included in  Segah mugham family. Being one option of “Segah mugham it is formed down from Middle Segahin kvarta, in “si segah set point.

KHAVARAN –mugham section. It is performed between “Khojasta” and “Araq” sections in “Rast dastgah; between  Bayati-Isfahan and Uzzal in Bayati-Shiraz dastgah.

 KERESHME (Persian: wink ) - One section performed in the beginning of “Mahur” and “Chahargah” dastgah.

KASMA SHIKASTA - Azerbaijani zarbi mugam. Kasma Shikasta sometimes  called as Baku Shikeste. It poetic text consists of folk bayatıs. This zarbi mugham occupies a special place in the creation of female folk singers.

KURDI – mugham section. As it in the base of Bayati - Kurd mugham it is called Kurdi.

KURD-OVSAR – Zarbi mugham in Shur dastgah base. In the same well-known symphonic mugham of the composer Fikret Amirov Ovsharı along with mugham Maani \'(\' Osmanı) zarbi mugham has been widely used.

KURD-SHAHNAZ – mugham in Shur base.

CAUCASUS HUMAYUN – one kind of “HUmayun’ mugham existed in Azerbaijani music practice at the beginning of the twentieth century.

GARABAGH SHIKESTESI-  Zarbi mugham in Azerbaijani oral tradition music. It is based on Seqah point. Size is 24. The poetic text is from folk bayatıs.

QATAR - small-scale mugham. Belongs to Rast family of mugham. The structure consists of three sections. Zil Qatar, Mayeyi Qatar”, Zil qatar. It is sung in rast point tones.

QATAR-BAYATI – Formed from combination of intonation of Qatar Mugam and Shepherd bayati mugams. This Mugam compared from  Qatar mugham is completed with  Shepherd bayatı cadences.

QAMANGIZ – part in Dast mugam.

QARAI – section coming after Araq and Panjgah in Rast Mugam dastgah.  Lowering from zil (up) of mugham to bam (down) is characteristic for Qarai section.

QARRA - Mugam section in the ancient Eastern music.

MAANI – Zarbi mugam of Shur mugam family. In mugham performance practice this zarbi mugham is called Osmanly. Maani is sung on folk poetry. Here afeelings and passions of hero, application to loverl, visual dream and pains are described. Music text was written in march type and had restrained character.

MAHUR-HINDI- mugham dastgah. Included in a family of Rast mugham. Forms one of options of kvarta up of “Rast” dastgah. Based on the maya rast with point tones. Set: Bardasht, Mayeyi-mahur, Usshaq, Husseini, Vilayati, Shikasteyi-fars, Araq, Qarai consists ofsections and parts.

MANSURİYYA - 1. Section that played in Chahargah mugham after “Mukhalif”, culmination of mugham. 2. Zarbi mugham in Chahargah root.  

MANANDA-HASAR – Section played after Bardasht section in  Zabul Segah mugham.

MANANDA-MUKHALIF – mugham section. Section located between Muya and Segah sections in Zabul Segah mugham.

MASIHI – mugham section.Section played in Rahab mugham after Dilruba, in Rast dastgah after  Vilayati .

SEGAH OF MIRZA HUSSEIN – Dastgah included in  Segah 
mugam family. It was named after Mirza Hussain - Azerbaijani folk singer (XVIII century) that first performed it.

MUYA - mugham section. It is used in a number of dastgah.

MUKHALIF – Section of mugham. It is performed in Chahargah mugham.

MEHAYYAR –Part played after “Araq”  section in “Mahur dastgah

MUKHALIF – section between “Hasar” and “Maghlub” in Chahargah dastgah.

NAHAVAND – music section. Section performed in Eastern music in Segah dastgah after Guseyi-Madai.

NAHIB – 1. Vocal instrumental episode performed in Shur dastgah between the Husseini and Araq sections. 2. Vocal instrumental part between Muhayyar and Mubarriqa sections in Rast dastgah.  

RAHAB - Small-volume mugham. It has an ancient history. It is included in Shur family of mughams. Includes: Amiri, Sikasteyi-Fars, Araq, Qarai. Masihi, Rahaba-ayaq

SAQINAMA - music section, this name was connected with the pattern of oriental poetry, meaning love song; it is fun joyful instrumental music performed in a live in dastgah. It is found while performing Shur, Humayun, Mahur mugams.

SARANJ (sarang) – 1. Section located between “Hijaz and Nisibi-faraz in Shur dastgah. It is close to segah for basis point. Shur mugham brings motley to composition in segah point within the transition 2. U.Hajibeyov had shown saranj in the line additional points.

SEGAH-ZABUL – One of mugham variants included in Segah mugam family.

SALMAK - music section. It is sounded in  Shur dastgah  before the Shur-Shahnaz section and has an  importance of the transition.  It is performed between Dashti and Muya sections; one of 6 voices in music of the Middle Ages of the East.

SAMAYI-SHAMS - Mugam riddles. It is based on the Shur point.

SUZI-GUDAZ – Last sections of Mahur” and Rahab dastgahs.

SHAHNAZ – 1.Small volume mugham.  In the practice of the XIX century Azerbaijani music performance, both independent mugham dastgah and section. Consist of  3 parts “Shahnaz;  2. Dilkash, “Zil Shahnaz” (“Shaddi Shahnaz”). 2. One of 6 voices in the music of Middle Ages.

SHAH KHATAI – 1.Section of “Shahnaz” dastgah in XIX century Azerbaijani music. 2. Traditional minstrel music.    

SHADDI -SHAHNAZ – section of mugham. Shadd  is a melody that sung most loudly and means Shahnaz’s loud voice.

SHAHDI-SHAHNAZ – mugham section. Means Shahnaz’s honey.

SHIKASTEYI-FARS – section of mugham. Based on segah point. It is used in many mughams like Rast, Mahur- Hindi, Bayati-Gajar, Shur, Segah,  Mirza Hussein segah, Zabul-Segah, Dashti, Bayati-Shiraz , etc. 

SHUR-SHAHNAZ - Department of Music. It is included in the Shur mugham dastgah. It is performed after Maveyi-Shur section and makes new stage of development. A reference level of Shur-Shahnaz is located four steps (kvarta) over up (do shur).

TARABANGIZ – Section between Khavaran” and “Nishanpurak” in “Mahur” dastgah.

TARKIB- mugham section. One of the main parts of Shushtar mugam. Section between “Shushter and Uzzal” in “Humayun mugam.

USSHAQ – It is performed in Rast, Mahur-Hindi, Orta Mahur dastgahs after “Maye section (between Maye and Huseyni”).

UZZAL – section of mugham. In Bayati-Shiraz dastgah it is sung  after  Khavaran section. 

VILAYATI - section of mugham. One of the principal sections performed in Rast and Mahur-Hindi dastgahs.

YETIM -SEGAH – It was mugam in Azerbaijan oral tradition professional music. A version in Segah mugham. It is performed in just Segah tone. Usually, a mugam that causes a sad mood in listener is  called such.

YADI-HASAR – mugham section. It is located between “Araq” and “Ashiri-Gush” in Zabul Segah.

ZABUL SEGAH - Mugam. One of the biggest mugham dastgahs in the folklore music heritage of Azerbaijan. It is included in Segah family of music. One of the variants of Segah mugam. Set: Mayeyi-Zabul, Muya, Manandi-mukhalif, Segah, Makhluq, Shikasteyi-Fars, Mubarriqa, Araq, Yadi-hasar, Ashiqi-Gush sections.  

ZAMIN-KHARA – 1. Section located between “Mansuriyya” and “Rak-hisar” in “Rast” dastgah ; between “Bayati- Gajar” and “Mavarannahr” in “Rahab” dastgah; between “Mansuriyya” and “Maverannahr” sections in “Chahargah” dastgah in XIX centuries;  2. At present, section sung after “Samayi-shams” in  Shur Mugam.

ZANGI-SHUTUR – A section of Music. Included in composition of some mugams. A section located at the end of “Rast ,Dugah ,Mahur -Hindi dastgahs between  “Araq and Raq divisions; It is performed in Chahargah and Neva dastgahs between Ashrian and Kerkuki .

ZIRAFKEND – 1. One of the 12 mughams forms the base of  classical music of Eastern peoples of the Middle Ages. 2. At present, the part of Music. A part located between the “Fili” and “Abul” in “Mahur” dastgah.





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