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Forests of Azerbaijan
Forests areas, having mutual influence on each other in the biological development, being considered as the combination of active soil, water, trees, shrubs, grasses, animal kingdom, micro-organisms are considered as valuable natural resources of Azerbaijan.
In XVIII-XIX centuries 35% of the territory of present Azerbaijan was covered with the forest. At present, the total area of forests in Azerbaijan is 1021 thousand hectares. This constitutes 11.8% of the territory of Azerbaijan. 49% of the country\'s forest resources come to the Greater Caucasus, 34% to Lesser Caucasus region, 15% to Talish zone and 2% to Aran zone (together with the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic).
There are original forest formations of forests of Azerbaijan. These formations are as follows:
1. Coniferous forests consisting of hook-shaped pines
2. Sparse juniper forests
3. Beech forests of the Eastern beech
4. Oak forest formations
a) (Talysh) forests consisting of chestnut oak 
b) the Caucasian oak forests of the lower mountain zone
c) Eastern oak forests of the upper mountain zone
d) Long stem oak forests
e) The less productive forests of Araz oak (other kinds of oak (golden oak, chestnut-colored, brash oak, brown oak, etc.) does not form a separate forest formations and does not participate in creation of formations of other species)
5. Hornbeam forest formation
6. A relict forest formation of iron tree
7. Birch forest formation
8. Forests of velvet maple 
9. Sparse forests of birch Tranttoveter
10. Palm forests
11. Elm forests
12. Forests consisting of ordinary nut
13. Ordinary chestnut forests
14. Forests of azad trees 
15. Forests of the Silk akasia
16. Humid forests of wing nut - forests of the Glzllagaj
17. Poplar forests - birch forests
18. Tugay forests formed along the banks of the Kura-Araz 
Azerbaijan  gained popularity over the world with charming beauty, rich natural resources, colorful flora and fauna. Here 4500 species of higher plant of 125 families and 930 sorts were spread. From them 450 species of trees and bushes of 48 families and 135 kinds grow in the forests of Republic. It comprises 11 plant species in the flora of Resublika. In Azerbaijani dendroflora 70 regional endemic species are found. This is 16% of a common tree and shrub species.  
Azerbaijan forests mainly consist of broadleaf species. In coniferous forests mainly hook-shaped pine (Pinus Hamata)is found in the Lesser Caucasus, in Goy-Gol and in a large pine grove in the territory of Tovuz region, in forests around of Shamlyq and Boyuk Gishlag villages, in the forests in  the territory of Gusar region in the Greater Caucasus.   
From coniferous kinds the most widely spread is Juniper forests.
The distribution of forest on age classes is different. Thus, 11.2% of the area covered with young forests, the middle-aged trees in 63, 3%, the matured and over-aged forests-13, 4% and growing trees in 12, 1% of area.
There are 150 species of wild fruit plants of 1536 kinds in our forests. These plants have thousand tons (walnut, apple, pear, cornelian cherry, hawthorn, medlar, hazelnut, persimmon, hawthorn, chestnut, blackberry, etc.) of wild fruits. From these fruits 30% are important products for use.  
There are favorable conditions for the development of beekeeping in our forests. At present, about 700 bee families are kept in forest enterprises. Bees help in pollination of forest vegetation, create opportunity for abundant seed products and honey products.
In forests located in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan by the Armenian troops, particularly the mountain forests were damaged. As a result of Armenian aggression, in occupied areas 246 thousand ha of forest have been destroyed, brutally looted. Cutting of valuable tree species in these areas led to critic situation of biodiversity.



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