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Morphology of the Azerbaijani language

  


Lexical composition of the Azerbaijani language is divided according to lexical-grammar, morphological and syntactic features into few groups – parts of speech: Nouns, verbs and auxiliary parts of speech.
Noun, adjective, numeral, pronoun, verb, adverbial modifier, post position, conjunction, particle and modal words have been included into composition of the parts of speech in the Azerbaijani language.
Four specific general grammatical categories related to nouns in the Azerbaijani language: case, genitive, dative, accusative, locative and initial case) possession (-ım4, -m ımız4; -ın4 -ı, -ınız4; -ı4, -sı4, -lar2+ı4), quantity (-lar lər), predicative (-əm2, -ik4; -sən2, -siniz4; -dir4,, dir4+lar2) .
Adjective in Azerbaijani language has specific signs (ordinary, diminutive, augmentative). Degrees of the adjective bring up special morphological signs: -raq, -rək ımtıl, -sov, -şın, -ımtraq, -ca etc. 
Numerals in Azerbaijani language are divided in: cardinal, ordinal, indefinite and fractional numerals.
Cardinal numerals:  bir, üç, yeddi, beş min altı yüz etc (one, three, seven, five thousand six hundreds etc).
Ordinal numerals: beş-inci, otuz-uncu  etc. (fifth, thirtieth etc).
Indefinite numerals:  az, çox, xeyli, beş-altı etc (less, many, enough, few)
Fractional numerals: yüzdə biri, üç tam beşdə bir etc.(one hundredth, five point fifth etc)
There are five categories of pronouns in Azerbaijani language: personal pronouns (mən, sən, o, biz, siz, onlar), demonstrative pronoun (o, bu, elə, belə, həmin, həmən), indefinite pronouns (kimsə, kim isə, nəsə, nə isə, biri, kimi, hamı hər kəs etc), determinative pronouns (öz, hər, bütün, filan, eyni), interrogative pronouns (kim, nə, hara, necə, nə cür, hansı ).  
Verbs in grammatical system of Azerbaijani language are distinguished with richness, comprehensiveness and various categories. They can be characterized with following categories from lexical-semantic features: 1) accusative and accusative category; 2) verbs are in affirmative and negative forms; 3) Meaning kinds (known, unknown, return, impersonal, compulsion, mixed-joint kinds; 4) it has affixes (imperative, informative, optative, necessity, conditional affixes); 5) tenses (past (declarative ), present, future (definite and indefinite future tenses) ; 6) conjugation forms (verbal adverb, verbal particle, infinitive) etc. 
Adverbs are related to nouns in Azerbaijani language, too. Arderbs are four kinds as adverbial modifier of manner, tense, location, enumerative adverbs. Postposition, particle, modal words and interjection are considered as subsidiary parts of speech. 
Postpositions (üçün, kimi, üzrə, sarı, ötrü, dək, can, başqa, özgə, sonra, əvvəl etc) perform various syntactical duties between nouns and nouns, nouns and verbs Post positions get into connection with indefinite genitive, dative and initial cases and create post position units   
Conjunctions (və, ilə, amma, ancaq, lakin, halbuki, ya, ya da, gah, gah da, istər, istərsə etc.)  are subsidiary parts of speech that create connection between member of sentence or sentences. Conjunctions are divided into two parts:  subordinating and coordinating conjunctions.  
Particles are subsidiary parts of speech increasing the influence strength of the words and sentences. Particle (axı, ən, lap, daha, olduqca, elə, belə, məhz, əsl, yalnız, ancaq və s.) give meaning patterns to sentence, in which it included.
But modal words (doğrudan, həqiqətən, sözsüz, şübhəsiz, doğrusu, düzü, görünür, ehtimal, görəsən, bəlkə etc.) are subsidiary parts of speech that serve to express attitude of speaking person to real world, and to expressed thought, as well.   
Exclamations (vay, ox, of, uy, ura, bəh-bəh, oxqay etc.) are words that show the feeling, excitement, fear or joy of the speaking person



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