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Sufi teachings and philosophical poetry

  


Suhrawardi, Ghadiri, Yasawi and other Sufi sects that emerged in the XII century, expanded their activities in the XII-XIV centuries. Founder of the Order of Suhrawardi Shihabaddin Shuhravardi, along with socio-political and scientific activities in these years was seriously dealt with the training and education of Sufi sages. Some famous people who have received his education, involved in promotion of Suhrawardi. Disseminators of the ideas of this exercise was Imameddin Muhammed (...- 1257), Ali ibn Nadzhibeddin Bozgush Shirazi (...- 1278), Muhammad ibn Nadzhmaddin Isra (...- 1278), Zakariya Multani Bahaddin (...- 1268) and others, who brought them to the attention of the masses.
It should be noted that among the members of the Sufi currents and their fans were well-known poets.
As the mevlanizm created by Lalaleddin Rumi in(1207-1273) XIII century, the principles of Naqshbandism founded in the XIV century Burhanaddinom Muhammad al-Bukhari (1327-1389), widely spread among the Turkic peoples, including in Azerbaijan.
XIV century is also characterized by the emergence in Azerbaijan and throughout the East hurufizma, whose founder was Fazlullah Naimi (1339-1394). After his execution by order of Teymurlang, followers Naimi actively defended the hurufizma, promoting them to the public.
In the XIII-XIV centuries Azerbaijan poetry, along with an art component, was characterized as socio-political context. Issues of morality and Philosophical reflections occupied the main place in the writings of Mahmud Shabustari (1287-1320) and Ahvadi Maragai (1274-1388).
The main idea of  a book of famous Azerbaijani scientist Sheikh Mahmoud Shabustari named Sirr Gulsheni, is pantheistic explanation of the unity of being. Thinker in his study examines the structure of being in the context of the verses of the Qur\'an. He is comparing the verses of the Koran and the level of being, raises first sura to the universal mind, surah Light - the universal desire, Sura Arche - heaven surah Kursi - heaven of stars, surah Fatiha - the rest of the seven heavens. Along with this, the scientist said in revealing verses four elements (earth, water, air and fire) and the inability to transfer verses by type of nature - minerals, flora and fauna. The emergence of human desire at the end of the formation being due to the sura of the Koran (The Man (En-Nas).
Mahmoud Shabustari equates to a human desire to universal desire and relates it to the entire universe.
Mahmud Shabustari as a representative of Sufism, connects the external manifestations of knowledge of being with the Shariah, and the knowledge of its internal manifestations with reality. Therefore, in order to know the reality, it is necessary to overcome the path between the Shariah and reality.
Sheikh Maragai taught by the Sufi poet Abugamida Avhadaddina (Kirmani 1236) was present in the classroom Sadraddin Konavi.
Maragai deeply thought about the issue of existence and knowledge. Social, political, moral and ethical issues were significant in his work. The poet thought and honesty of the shah and vezir fundamental condition for the prosperity and happy life for the people. 
It should be noted that in XIII-XIV centuries, thinkers Siradzhaddin Urmavi, Nasraddin Tusi and others for discussions on socio-political issues have focused on just principles of justice.



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