» Philosophy of XI-XII centuries
In addition to the pantheistic philosophy peripatetism and Sufism in the XII century the Muslim world, emerging third scientific-philosophical doctrine – Ishraq. Certain ideas of the doctrine established by the Azerbaijani philosopher Yahya Shihabeddin Shuhravardi comply with ancient Eastern and Greek philosophical thought.
Special works Shihabaddina Shuhravardi and his followers on the topic Peripatetic (logic, metaphysics and physics (natural science) demonstrate that they have learned enough and borrowed the theory of Aristotle. The founder of the teachings of Irshagi critical attitude to some of the issues peripatetism, but with a sense of respect for gave tribute first teacher - Aristotle.
Some researchers attribute this doctrine to such teachings as "Garmata", "ismaillizm", "nuseyri", etc. Clearly observed a significant influence of philosophers Irshagi on Sufi teachings, as evidenced by the fact that some authors describe this doctrine as one of the Sufi ways. Speaking about the ideological sources of the teachings of Ishraq some researchers bring to the front and Neoplatonism.
Despite the influence of the philosophers - Ishrag simply do not overlap with the views of their predecessors, while pushing more and more new ideas and conclusions in the study of epistemological and anthological themes. The idea of Ishrag indirectly differ from almost all previous ideas associated with the study of philosophical issues.
The proximity of the various exercises, as well as the mutual borrowing of ideas at the same time replaced the ideological differentiation that can clearly be seen in the relationship with Mutakallims Peripatetics. In the analysis of a number of issues, Sufis motadily occupy a similar position with Mutakallims and Sufis-Ishrag with Peripatetics. Despite the use of Abuhamid Ghazali logical and philosophical terms and principles in his writings, he spoke out against Farabi, Ibn Sina, and their followers, trying to prove weightlessness Peripatetic philosophy. He was expressing a Peripatetic subjects scholastic approach, particularly dwells on each of them. Thinker has underlined the lack of relationship between secular and religious sciences.
Ghazali says Abuhamid harm mathematics religion. The first injury is that face, studying mathematics, definition of evidence is affected, gives tribute to the philosophers and hopes to study other philosophical sciences in the same manner. This person, seeing the accusation of atheism of philosophers, who justifies himself, is godless.
According to Mutakallims, the second injury to mathematics, religion, lies in the fact that a friend of Islam, Jahiliyyah (Hanbali fagih) aid in the rejection of religion, sees Philosophy. He was speaking on behalf of Islam, rejects even these philosophers real phenomena, resulting in Jahiliyyah opinion is accepted as a religious postulate, therefore, there is sympathy and aversion to philosophers of religion.
It should be noted that during this period in the West, unlike the East, have been studied only religious sciences and secular sciences were banned, scientific philosophy as such did not exist. At the end of XI century after the capture of the Spanish city of Toledo (1085), the total capture of Sicily (1091) and the fall of Jerusalem (1099), Europeans were able to study the Arabic-language science. Spain has become like a transit point spread Arabic sciences, particularly mathematics and astronomy in Europe. In XI-XII centuries, Jewish scholars translated from Arabic into Latin and spread into Europe some of the major treatises of secular science and philosophy.
Interestingly, when the progressive development of secular sciences in India in the period outlook was not based on science and on religion. Abureyhan Biruni noted that the Inquisition forced the Indian Brahmin thinkers give their discoveries religious connotation.
Thus, the history of philosophy XI-XII centuries by philosophers of Azerbaijan and the Muslim East as a whole has been enriched by the works and discoveries related to the particular scientific philosophy. East peripatetism, pantheism and the Irshagi played a major role in the development of philosophical thought of the XII century.